Liste des commandes de base Linux

Voici une liste des commandes de base sous Linux: (source:

Command Description

                         apropos whatis                                   Show commands pertinent
                                                                          to string. See also

                         man -t ascii \| ps2pdf - \> ascii.pdf            make a pdf of a manual

                         which command                                    Show full path name of

                         time command                                     See how long a command

                         time cat                                         Start stopwatch. Ctrl-d
                                                                          to stop. See also sw

dir navigation

                         cd -                                             Go to previous directory

                         cd                                               Go to \$HOME directory

                         (cd dir && command)                              Go to dir, execute
                                                                          command and return to
                                                                          current dir

                         pushd **.**                                      Put current dir on stack
                                                                          so you can **popd** back
                                                                          to it

file searching

                         alias l=\'ls -l \--color=auto\'                  quick dir listing

                         ls -lrt                                          List files by date. See
                                                                          also newest and

                         ls /usr/bin \| pr -T9 -W\$COLUMNS                Print in 9 columns to
                                                                          width of terminal

                         find -name \'\*.\[ch\]\' \| xargs grep -E        Search \'expr\' in this
                         \'expr\'                                         dir and below. See also

                         find -type f -print0 \| xargs -r0 grep -F        Search all regular files
                         \'example\'                                      for \'example\' in this
                                                                          dir and below

                         find -maxdepth 1 -type f \| xargs grep -F        Search all regular files
                         \'example\'                                      for \'example\' in this

                         find -maxdepth 1 -type d \| while read dir; do   Process each item with
                         echo \$dir; echo cmd2; done                      multiple commands (in
                                                                          while loop)

                         find -type f ! -perm -444                        Find files not readable
                                                                          by all (useful for web

                         find -type d ! -perm -111                        Find dirs not accessible
                                                                          by all (useful for web

                         locate -r \'file\[\^/\]\*\\.txt\'                Search cached index for
                                                                          names. This re is like
                                                                          glob \*file\*.txt

                         look reference                                   Quickly search (sorted)
                                                                          dictionary for prefix

                         grep \--color reference /usr/share/dict/words    Highlight occurances of
                                                                          regular expression in

archives and

                         gpg -c file                                      Encrypt file

                         gpg file.gpg                                     Decrypt file

                         tar -c dir/ \| bzip2 \> dir.tar.bz2              Make compressed archive
                                                                          of dir/

                         bzip2 -dc dir.tar.bz2 \| tar -x                  Extract archive (use
                                                                          gzip instead of bzip2
                                                                          for tar.gz files)

                         tar -c dir/ \| gzip \| gpg -c \| ssh             Make encrypted archive
                         user\@remote \'dd of=dir.tar.gz.gpg\'            of dir/ on remote

                         find dir/ -name \'\*.txt\' \| tar -c             Make archive of subset
                         \--files-from=- \| bzip2 \> dir_txt.tar.bz2      of dir/ and below

                         find dir/ -name \'\*.txt\' \| xargs cp -a        Make copy of subset of
                         \--target-directory=dir_txt/ \--parents          dir/ and below

                         ( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) \| ( cd /where/to/ &&    Copy (with permissions)
                         tar -x -p )                                      copy/ dir to /where/to/

                         ( cd /dir/to/copy && tar -c **.** ) \| ( cd      Copy (with permissions)
                         /where/to/ && tar -x -p )                        contents of copy/ dir to

                         ( tar -c /dir/to/copy ) \| ssh -C user\@remote   Copy (with permissions)
                         \'cd /where/to/ && tar -x -p\'                   copy/ dir to
                                                                          remote:/where/to/ dir

                         dd bs=1M if=/dev/sda \| gzip \| ssh user\@remote Backup harddisk to
                         \'dd of=sda.gz\'                                 remote machine

rsync (Network
efficient file copier: Use
the --dry-run option for

                         rsync -P rsync://   Only get diffs. Do
                         file                                             multiple times for
                                                                          troublesome downloads

                         rsync \--bwlimit=1000 fromfile tofile            Locally copy with rate
                                                                          limit. It\'s like nice
                                                                          for I/O

                         rsync -az -e ssh \--delete \~/public_html/       Mirror web site (using
               \'\~/public_html\'                    compression and

                         rsync -auz -e ssh remote:/dir/ **.** && rsync    Synchronize current
                         -auz -e ssh **.**remote:/dir/                    directory with remote

ssh (Secure SHell)

                         ssh \$USER@\$HOST command                        Run command on \$HOST as
                                                                          \$USER (default

                         ssh -f -Y \$USER@\$HOSTNAME xeyes                Run GUI command on
                                                                          \$HOSTNAME as \$USER

                         scp -p -r \$USER@\$HOST: file dir/               Copy with permissions to
                                                                          \$USER\'s home directory
                                                                          on \$HOST

                         scp -c arcfour \$USER@\$LANHOST: bigfile         Use faster crypto for
                                                                          local LAN. This might
                                                                          saturate GigE

                         ssh -g -L 8080:localhost:80 root@\$HOST          Forward connections to
                                                                          \$HOSTNAME:8080 out to

                         ssh -R 1434:imap:143 root@\$HOST                 Forward connections from
                                                                          \$HOST:1434 in to

                         ssh-copy-id \$USER@\$HOST                        Install \$USER\'s public
                                                                          key on \$HOST for
                                                                          password-less log in

wget (multi purpose
download tool)

                         (cd dir/ && wget -nd                             Store local browsable
                         -pHEKk<>)   version of a page to the
                                                                          current dir

                         wget -c <>      Continue downloading a
                                                                          partially downloaded

                         wget -r -nd -np -l1 -A \'\*.jpg\'                Download a set of files
                         <>                    to the current directory

                         wget <ftp://remote/file%5B1-9%5D.iso/>           FTP supports globbing

                         wget -q -O-                                      Process output directly
                         <> \| grep 
                         \'a href\' \| head                               

                         echo \'wget url\' \| at 01:00                    Download url at 1AM to
                                                                          current dir

                         wget \--limit-rate=20k url                       Do a low priority
                                                                          download (limit to
                                                                          20KB/s in this case)

                         wget -nv \--spider \--force-html -i              Check links in a file

                         wget \--mirror <>         Efficiently update a
                                                                          local copy of a site
                                                                          (handy from cron)

networking (Note
ifconfig, route, mii-tool,
nslookup commands are

                         ethtool eth0                                     Show status of ethernet
                                                                          interface eth0

                         ethtool \--change eth0 autoneg off speed 100     Manually set ethernet
                         duplex full                                      interface speed

                         iwconfig eth1                                    Show status of wireless
                                                                          interface eth1

                         iwconfig eth1 rate 1Mb/s fixed                   Manually set wireless
                                                                          interface speed

                         iwlist scan                                      List wireless networks
                                                                          in range

                         ip link show                                     List network interfaces

                         ip link set dev eth0 name wan                    Rename interface eth0 to

                         ip link set dev eth0 up                          Bring interface eth0 up
                                                                          (or down)

                         ip addr show                                     List addresses for

                         ip addr add brd + dev eth0            Add (or del) ip and mask

                         ip route show                                    List routing table

                         ip route add default via               Set default gateway to

                         host                               Lookup DNS ip address
                                                                          for name or vice versa

                         hostname -i                                      Lookup local ip address
                                                                          (equivalent to host

                         whois                              Lookup whois info for
                                                                          hostname or ip address

                         netstat -tupl                                    List internet services
                                                                          on a system

                         netstat -tup                                     List active connections
                                                                          to/from system

windows networking
(Note samba is the package
that provides all this
windows specific
networking support)

                         smbtree                                          Find windows machines.
                                                                          See also findsmb

                         nmblookup -A                             Find the windows
                                                                          (netbios) name
                                                                          associated with ip

                         smbclient -L windows_box                         List shares on windows
                                                                          machine or samba server

                         mount -t smbfs -o fmask=666,guest                Mount a windows share
                         //windows_box/share /mnt/share                   

                         echo \'message\' \| smbclient -M windows_box     Send popup to windows
                                                                          machine (off by default
                                                                          in XP sp2)

text manipulation
(Note sed uses stdin and
stdout. Newer versions
support inplace editing
with the -i option)

                         sed \'s/string1/string2/g\'                      Replace string1 with

                         sed \'s/\\(.\*\\)1/\\12/g\'                      Modify anystring1 to

                         sed \'/ \*#/d; /\^ \*\$/d\'                      Remove comments and
                                                                          blank lines

                         sed \':a; /\\\\\$/N; s/\\\\\\n//; ta\'           Concatenate lines with
                                                                          trailing \\

                         sed \'s/\[ \\t\]\*\$//\'                         Remove trailing spaces
                                                                          from lines

                         sed \'s/\\(\[\`\"\$\\\]\\)/\\\\\\1/g\'           Escape shell
                                                                          metacharacters active
                                                                          within double quotes

                         seq 10 \| sed \"s/\^/ /; s/                      Right align numbers

                         sed -n \'1000{p;q}\'                             Print 1000th line

                         sed -n \'10,20p;20q\'                            Print lines 10 to 20

                         sed -n \'s/.\*                                   Extract title from HTML
                                                                          web page

                         sed -i 42d \~/.ssh/known_hosts                   Delete a particular line

                         sort -t. -k1,1n -k2,2n -k3,3n -k4,4n             Sort IPV4 ip addresses

                         echo \'Test\' \| tr \'\[:lower:\]\'              Case conversion

                         tr -dc \'\[:print:\]\' \< /dev/urandom           Filter non printable

                         tr -s \'\[:blank:\]\' \'\\t\'                    cut fields separated by

                         history \| wc -l                                 Count lines

set operations (Note
you can export LANG=C for
speed. Also these assume
no duplicate lines within
a file)

                         sort file1 file2 \| uniq                         Union of unsorted files

                         sort file1 file2 \| uniq -d                      Intersection of unsorted

                         sort file1 file1 file2 \| uniq -u                Difference of unsorted

                         sort file1 file2 \| uniq -u                      Symmetric Difference of
                                                                          unsorted files

                         join -t\'\\0\' -a1 -a2 file1 file2               Union of sorted files

                         join -t\'\\0\' file1 file2                       Intersection of sorted

                         join -t\'\\0\' -v2 file1 file2                   Difference of sorted

                         join -t\'\\0\' -v1 -v2 file1 file2               Symmetric Difference of
                                                                          sorted files


                         echo \'(1 + sqrt(5))/2\' \| bc -l                Quick math (Calculate
                                                                          φ). See also bc

                         echo \'pad=20; min=64;                           More complex (int) e.g.
                         (100\*10\^6)/((pad+min)\*8)\' \| bc              This shows max FastE
                                                                          packet rate

                         echo \'pad=20; min=64; print                     Python handles
                         (100E6)/((pad+min)\*8)\' \| python               scientific notation

                         echo \'pad=20; plot \[64:1518\]                  Plot FastE packet rate
                         (100\*10\*\*6)/((pad+x)\*8)\' \| gnuplot         vs packet size

                         echo \'obase=16; ibase=10; 64206\' \| bc         Base conversion (decimal
                                                                          to hexadecimal)

                         echo \$((0x2dec))                                Base conversion (hex to
                                                                          dec) ((shell arithmetic

                         units -t \'100m/9.58s\' \'miles/hour\'           Unit conversion (metric
                                                                          to imperial)

                         units -t \'500GB\' \'GiB\'                       Unit conversion (SI to
                                                                          IEC prefixes)

                         units -t \'1 googol\'                            Definition lookup

                         seq 100 \| (tr \'\\n\' +; echo 0) \| bc          Add a column of numbers.
                                                                          See also add and funcpy


                         cal -3                                           Display a calendar

                         cal 9 1752                                       Display a calendar for a
                                                                          particular month year

                         date -d fri                                      What date is it this
                                                                          friday. See also day

                         \[ \$(date -d \"tomorrow\" +%d) = \"01\" \] \|\| exit a script unless
                         exit                                             it\'s the last day of
                                                                          the month

                         date \--date=\'25 Dec\' +%A                      What day does xmas fall
                                                                          on, this year

                         date \--date=\'\@2147483647\'                    Convert seconds since
                                                                          the epoch (1970-01-01
                                                                          UTC) to date

                         TZ=\'America/Los_Angeles\' date                  What time is it on west
                                                                          coast of US (use
                                                                          tzselect to find TZ)

                         date \--date=\'TZ=\"America/Los_Angeles\" 09:00  What\'s the local time
                         next Fri\'                                       for 9AM next Friday on
                                                                          west coast US


                         printf \"%\'d\\n\" 1234                          Print number with
                                                                          thousands grouping
                                                                          appropriate to locale

                         BLOCK_SIZE=\\\'1 ls -l                           Use locale thousands
                                                                          grouping in ls. See also

                         echo \"I live in \`locale territory\`\"          Extract info from locale

                         LANG=en_IE.utf8 locale int_prefix                Lookup locale info for
                                                                          specific country. See
                                                                          also ccodes

                         locale \| cut -d= -f1 \| xargs locale -kc \|     List fields available in
                         less                                             locale database

recode (Obsoletes
iconv, dos2unix, unix2dos)

• recode -l | less Show available conversions (aliases on each line)

                         recode windows-1252.. file_to_change.txt         Windows \"ansi\" to
                                                                          local charset (auto does
                                                                          CRLF conversion)

                         recode utf-8/CRLF.. file_to_change.txt           Windows utf8 to local

                         recode iso-8859-15..utf8 file_to_change.txt      Latin9 (western europe)
                                                                          to utf8

                         recode ../b64 \< file.txt \> file.b64            Base64 encode

                         recode /qp.. \< file.qp \> file.txt              Quoted printable decode

                         recode ..HTML \< file.txt \> file.html           Text to HTML

                         recode -lf windows-1252 \| grep euro             Lookup table of

                         echo -n 0x80 \| recode latin-9/x1..dump          Show what a code
                                                                          represents in latin-9

                         echo -n 0x20AC \| recode ucs-2/x2..latin-9/x     Show latin-9 encoding

                         echo -n 0x20AC \| recode ucs-2/x2..utf-8/x       Show utf-8 encoding


                         gzip \< /dev/cdrom \> cdrom.iso.gz               Save copy of data cdrom

                         mkisofs -V LABEL -r dir \| gzip \> cdrom.iso.gz  Create cdrom image from
                                                                          contents of dir

                         mount -o loop cdrom.iso /mnt/dir                 Mount the cdrom image at
                                                                          /mnt/dir (read only)

                         cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom blank=fast            Clear a CDRW

                         gzip -dc cdrom.iso.gz \| cdrecord -v             Burn cdrom image (use
                         dev=/dev/cdrom -                                 dev=ATAPI -scanbus to
                                                                          confirm dev)

                         cdparanoia -B                                    Rip audio tracks from CD
                                                                          to wav files in current

                         cdrecord -v dev=/dev/cdrom -audio -pad \*.wav    Make audio CD from all
                                                                          wavs in current dir (see
                                                                          also cdrdao)

                         oggenc \--tracknum=\'track\' track.cdda.wav -o   Make ogg file from wav
                         \'track.ogg\'                                    file

disk space (See also

                         ls -lSr                                          Show files by size,
                                                                          biggest last

                         du -s \* \| sort -k1,1rn \| head                 Show top disk users in
                                                                          current dir. See also

                         du -hs /home/\* \| sort -k1,1h                   Sort paths by easy to
                                                                          interpret disk usage

                         df -h                                            Show free space on
                                                                          mounted filesystems

                         df -i                                            Show free inodes on
                                                                          mounted filesystems

                         fdisk -l                                         Show disks partitions
                                                                          sizes and types (run as

                         rpm -q -a \--qf \'%10{SIZE}\\t%{NAME}\\n\' \|    List all packages by
                         sort -k1,1n                                      installed size (Bytes)
                                                                          on rpm distros

                         dpkg-query -W                                    List all packages by
                         -f=\'\${Installed-Size;10}\\t\${Package}\\n\' \| installed size (KBytes)
                         sort -k1,1n                                      on deb distros

                         dd bs=1 seek=2TB if=/dev/null of=ext3.test       Create a large test file
                                                                          (taking no space). See
                                                                          also truncate

                         \> file                                          truncate data of file or
                                                                          create an empty file


                         tail -f /var/log/messages                        Monitor messages in a
                                                                          log file

                         strace -c ls \>/dev/null                         Summarise/profile system
                                                                          calls made by command

                         strace -f -e open ls \>/dev/null                 List system calls made
                                                                          by command

                         strace -f -e trace=write -e write=1,2 ls         Monitor what\'s written
                         \>/dev/null                                      to stdout and stderr

                         ltrace -f -e getenv ls \>/dev/null               List library calls made
                                                                          by command

                         lsof -p \$\$                                     List paths that process
                                                                          id has open

                         lsof \~                                          List processes that have
                                                                          specified path open

                         tcpdump not port 22                              Show network traffic
                                                                          except ssh. See also

                         ps -e -o pid,args \--forest                      List processes in a

                         ps -e -o pcpu,cpu,nice,state,cputime,args        List processes by % cpu
                         \--sort pcpu \| sed \'/\^ 0.0 /d\'               usage

                         ps -e -orss=,args= \| sort -b -k1,1n \| pr       List processes by mem
                         -TW\$COLUMNS                                     (KB) usage. See also

                         ps -C firefox-bin -L -o pid,tid,pcpu,state       List all threads for a
                                                                          particular process

                         ps -p 1,\$\$ -o etime=                           List elapsed wall time
                                                                          for particular process

                         last reboot                                      Show system reboot

                         free -m                                          Show amount of
                                                                          (remaining) RAM (-m
                                                                          displays in MB)

                         watch -n.1 \'cat /proc/interrupts\'              Watch changeable data

                         udevadm monitor                                  Monitor udev events to
                                                                          help configure rules

system information
(see also sysinfo) (\'#\'
means root access is

                         uname -a                                         Show kernel version and
                                                                          system architecture

                         head -n1 /etc/issue                              Show name and version of

                         cat /proc/partitions                             Show all partitions
                                                                          registered on the system

                         grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo                      Show RAM total seen by
                                                                          the system

                         grep \"model name\" /proc/cpuinfo                Show CPU(s) info

                         lspci -tv                                        Show PCI info

                         lsusb -tv                                        Show USB info

                         mount \| column -t                               List mounted filesystems
                                                                          on the system (and align

                         grep -F capacity: /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info   Show state of cells in
                                                                          laptop battery

# dmidecode -q | less Display SMBIOS/DMI information

# smartctl -A /dev/sda | grep Power_On_Hours How long has this disk (system) been powered on in total

# hdparm -i /dev/sda Show info about disk sda

# hdparm -tT /dev/sda Do a read speed test on disk sda

# badblocks -s /dev/sda Test for unreadable blocks on disk sda

interactive (see also
linux keyboard shortcuts)

                         readline                                         Line editor used by
                                                                          bash, python, bc,
                                                                          gnuplot, \...

                         screen                                           Virtual terminals with
                                                                          detach capability, \...

                         mc                                               Powerful file manager
                                                                          that can browse rpm,
                                                                          tar, ftp, ssh, \...

                         gnuplot                                          Interactive/scriptable

                         links                                            Web browser

                         xdg-open **.**                                   open a file or url with
                                                                          the registered desktop

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